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The College of Management Science

BCM Unifaculty London WC1N 3XX United Kingdom

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Western Philosophy & Philosophers

Syllabus

Western Philosophy & Philosophers  [Dip.Ph.] The work of the principal contributors to Western philosophy are included in this detailed course from the classics of Plato to Wittgenstein and has been expanded to discuss Boethius, Machiavelli, Spinoza and Rawls.
The course is arranged in an alphabetical order as below covering each philosopher and the main philosophical movements and doctrines. Within many of those sections are references and cross references to relevant other works and philosophers.

You can enrol in this course at
http://www.unifaculty.com/html/theology_courses.html

Part I [A to C ]

  • Abelard, Peter (c.1079 – 1442) noted for his ability as a dialectian and for his contribution to the problems of Universals.
    Adorno
    , Theodor W. (1903 – 1969) part of the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory.
    Aesthetics long considered one of the departments of philosophy.
    African philosophy
    , a variant of primitive philosophy
    Albert the Great (1206 – 1280) aka Albert Magnus became the Bishop of Ratisbon.
    Alexander
    , Samuel (1859 – 1938) brought up in the traditions of idealism and realism.
    Alienation: in the twentieth century the term expanded to describe the maladies of the modern world.
    Althusser
    L. mostly known for his discussions in the 1960s on Marxist orthodoxy
    Analysis, the resolution of a complex whole into its parts.
    Analytic
    : the term was introduce by Kant.
    Analytic Philosophy is presently the dominant academic tradition in the Western Anglosphere.
  • Anaxagoras of Clazomenζ lived c. 450 BC wrote Nature.
    Anaximander of Miletus lived c. 560 BC. a philosopher and scientist
    Anaximenes
    of Miletus lived c. 545 worked on Thale’s ideas of what the world was made.
    Anderson, John (1893 – 1962) a Scottish philosopher who became a Professor at the University of Sydney.
    Animals
    , the various philosophical ideas on what is and animal and homo sapien.
    Anscombe, G.E.M.Elizabeth, a highly regarded twentieth century philosophical teacher.
    Anselm
    of Canterbury (1033 – 1109) one of the early systematic thinkers of the Middle Ages.
    Antisthenes (c. 444BC – c. 366 BC) close friend of Socrates and critic of Plato
    Applied Ethics
    , the discussion of various philosophers on Ethics.
    a prior is Latin for ‘from what comes before’.
    Aquinas
    Thomas (c. 1225 – 1274) a major contibutor to the systematic method who wrote on Logic, theoretical philosophy and moral philosophy.
    Arendt, Hannah (1906 – 1975), a political theorist who wrote The Origins of Totalitarianism.
    Aristippus of Cyrene (c. 435 – 356 BC)a Sophist and founder of the Cyrenic school of philosophy.
    Aristotle
    (384 – 322 BC) His ideas are contained in Categories, Form and Matter, Actuality and Potentiality, the Four Causes, Logic, Physics, Biology, Psychology, Metaphysics, Ethics, Politics, Poetics.
    Atomism is an explanatory discussion of matter devised by ancient Greeks, Leucippus, Democritus, Epicurus and the Roman poet Lucretius.
    Augustine
    (354 -430) Saint who came late to early Christianity after a voyage through rhetoric, scepticism and neoplatonism.
    Austin, John Langshaw (1911 – 1960) had a considerable influence on the development of analytic philosophy.
    Ayer
    , Sir Alfred Jules (1910 – 1989) author of Language, Truth and Logic (1936)
    Bachelard, Gaston (1884 – 1962) French philosopher and important historian of science.
    Bacon, Francis (1561 – 1626) of his many works, his main contribution is in the application of the scientific method to philosophy.
    Bacon
    , Roger (c. 1214 – c. 1292) worked on the teaching of Christian wisdom using Greek and Arab science and philosophy.
    Beauvoir Simone de (1908 – 1986) a key figure in French existentialism and a founding theorist of feminism.
    Benjamin
    Walter (1892 – 1940)  associated with the Frankfurt School which published his essays.
  • Bentham Jeremy (1748 – 1832) Bentham famously substituted clear expressions for unclear ones.
    Berdyaev
    Nicholas (1874 – 1948) a religious thinker.
    Bergson Henri Louis (1859 – 1941) an extensive writer on philosophy.
    Berkeley
    George (1685 – 1753) an important English philosopher who whilst writing extensively had attempted, unsuccessfully to set up a university in Bermuda for the American colonists and native indians.
    Black Max a twentieth century philosopher whose main works are The Nature of Mathematics (1950) and The Labyrinth of Language (1968)
    Blanshard Brand, a prominent American philosopher in the twentieth century whose main work was in The Nature of Thought (1939).
    Bloch Ernst (1885 – 1977) was a German Marxist philosopher of Hope and Utopia.
    Boethius
    Anicius Manlius Severenus (c. 480 – c. 524) his most celebrated work was De Consolatione Philosophiζ.
    Bonaventura (1221 – 1274) aka John of Fidanza, a Franciscan Theologian.
    Boole
    George (1815 – 1864) was self-educated and became an acknowledged mathematician.
    Bosanquet Bernard (1848 – 1923) was the last British philosopher to work out a complete system of philosophy.
    Bradley
    Francis Herbert (1846 – 1924) a research fellow of Merton College who lived his entire adult life at Oxford.
    Braithwaite Richard Bevan (1900 – 1988) mainly a philosopher in science.
    Bretano
    Franz (1838 – 1916) one of his important publications was Psychology from the Ethical Standpoint (1874 and 1911).
    Butler Joseph (1692 – 1752) is important in English moral philosophy and philosophy of religion.
    Catejan
    Thomas de Vio (1468 – 1534) was, inter alia the classic commentator on the summa theologica of Thomas Aquinas.
    Cambridge Platonists, a group of English philosophical theologians mostly Puritans.
    Carnap
    Rudolph (1891 – 1970) a leading exponent of logical positivism.
    Categories. Aristotle borrowed ‘categoria’ from legal parlance where it meant ‘accusation’ to stretch its meaning to anything which could be asserted truly or falsely.
    Chomsky
    Noam, a twentieth century American linguist who revolutionised linguistics by centring it on grammar.
    Chrysippus (c. 280 – c. 207 BC) possessed a virtuosity in dialectic and logic.
    Cicero
    Marcus Tullius (106 – 43 BC) a Roman lawyer, politician and writer.
    Clarke Samuel (1675 – 1729) an English philosopher who championed Newtonian philosophy.
    Cohen
    Morris R. (1880 – 1947) emigrated from Russia to teach philosophy in New York.
  • Collingwood Robin George ( 1889 – 1943) spent all of his working life at Oxford and eventually became Professor of Metaphysics.
    Comte
    Isidore-Auguste-Marie Franηois-Xavier (1798 – 1857) whose major work in a chequred life was Course on Positive Philosophy.
    Conceptualism is the view that the objects of thought and the meanings of general terms are concepts, these being mental entities which exist only in the minds and are formed and constructed by them.
    Condillac
    Etienne Bonnot de (1715 – 1780) his first book was the Essay on the Origin of Human Knowledge.
    Condorcet Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de (1743 – 1794) apart from his many works he is particulary known as a philosophical theorist of progress.
    Cratylus
    of Athens was a Sophist who lived around 410 BC.
    Croce Benedetto (1866 – 1952) his main fame is for his work in aesthetics.
    Cudworth
    Ralph (1617 – 1688) generally thought of as the most distinguished of the Cambridge Platonists.
    Cynicism is a philosophical movement started in the second half of the fourth century by Diogenes of Sinope.
    Cyrenaics
    , a school of hedonistic philosophy founded by Aristippus Cyrene, a friend of Socrates.

Part II [D to H]

 Davidson Donald a twentieth century American philosopher who is one of the most influential analytic philosophers.
 Deduction
is one of the technical terms used in logic.
 
Deleuze Giles is a twentieth century French philosopher who started his career as a  historian of philosophy.
 Democritus
lived in fifth century Greece and was one of the founders of atomic  theory.
 
Deontology where the fact of duty is a fundamental of moral thought.
 Derrida
Jacques, a twentieth century French philosopher recognised as a remarkable original voice in philosophy.
 
Descartes Renι (1596 – 1650) an influential philosopher and natural scientist.
 Determinism
which states that any event is an instance of some law of nature.
 
Dewey John (1859 – 1952) an American philosopher about whom it is said, inter alia to have replaced truth with value.
 
Dialectic from the Greek meaning to converse which originally meant the art of conversation, discussion or debate.
 Diderot
Denis (1713 – 1784) was an empiricist accepting scientific facts and rejecting  all metaphysical systems.
 
 
Dilthey Wilhelm (1833 – 1911) a German philosopher best known for his writings on  the theories of history and human sciences.
 Diogenes
lived in fourth century Greece and was a prototype of Cynicism.
 
Dualism is any system of thought which divides everything in some way into two categories.
 Ducasse
Curt John (1881 – 1969) whose most important work was Nature, Mind and  Death (1951)
 
Duhem Pierre (1861 – 1916) a French philosopher of science.
 Dummett
Michael a twentieth century English philosopher of mathematics.
 
Edwards Jonathon (1703 – 1758) a most highly regarded American philosopher.
 Eleatics
the name given to the philosopher, Parmenides and his follower Zeno.
 
Emotivism a doctrine most associated with logical positivism.
 Empedocles
lived in Greece c.450 BC. He was a doctor and a keen democrat.
 
Empiricism in philosophy means that all knowledge is derived from experience.
 Encyclopedists
produced a seventeen folio edition of the works of French intellectuals and philosophers.
 
Engels Friederich (1820 – 1895) a friend and financial supporter of Karl Marx.
 Epictetus
(c. 55 – c. 135) His work had a strong influence on pagan and Christian  thought.
 
Epicurus (342 – 270 BC) whose work is often misunderstood and misrepresented.
 Epistemology
the theory of knowledge.
 
Erigena John Scotus (c. 810 – c.877) an Irish monk whose chief work was Of the  Division of Labour.
 
Ethics: morals and descriptive ethics.
 Existentialism
a philosophical trend whose central figure is Heidigger.
 
Fallacy the term is used in logic to refer to an invalid arguement.
 Feuerbach
Ludwig Andreas (1804 – 1872) best known for his Essence of Christianity (1841)
 
Feyeraband Paul twentieth century pilosopher in science.
 Fichte
Johann Gottlieb (1762 – 1814) his ethical views were developed in his Theory of Morals (1798)
 
Foot Philippa, Twentieth century English moral philosopher.
 Foucault
Michel (1926 – 1984) his work is a fusion of philosophical and historical  investigations
 
Frankfurt School: the Institute of Social Research founded as an autonomous section of the University of Frankfurt in 1923.
 Frege
Gottlob (1848 – 1925) founder of modern mathematical logic
 
Gadamer Hans-Georg twentieth century philosopher developed hermeneutics.
 Gassendi
Pierre (1592 – 1655) an influence of Hobbes and Descartes
 
Gender the discussion of its differences with the concept of sex

 Gilson Etienne Henri (1884 – 1978) an authority on mediζval philosophy
 Goodman
Nelson a twentieth century American philosopher of language.
 
Gramsci Antonio (1891 – 1937) an Italian marxist
 Green
Thomas Hill (1836 – 1882) English philosopher who promoted the works of Kant and Hegel.
 
Grotius Hugo (1583 – 1645) a noted influential Dutch thinker
 Habermas
Jurgen 20th century marxist member of the Frankfurt School
 
Hamilton Sir William (1788 – 1856) Scottish philosopher; his main work is the  Philosophy of the Unconditioned (1829)
 
Hare Richard Mervyn 20th century English moral philosopher.
 
Hartmann Karl-Robert-Eduard von (1842 – 1906) known chiefly for Philosophy of  the Unconscious (1869)
 Hartmann
Nicolai (1882 – 1950) a speculative metaphysician in the grand style
 
Hedonism from the Greek hedone –pleasure.
 
Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770 – 1831) one of the most influential  philosophers of all time.
 Heidigger
Martin (1889 – 1976) a life long pre-occupation with the ‘question of being’
 
Heraclitus of Ephesus lived c.500 BC believed that things in the world were divided  into opposites.
 Hermeneutics
, the theory and practice of interpretation (Greek hermenia).
 
Hobbes Thomas (1588 – 1679) saw philosophy as a necessary preliminary to rational  government
 Holism
(Greek holos – whole) the thesis is that wholes are more than the sum of their parts.
 
Horkheimer Max (1895 – 1973) leading architect of the Frankfurt School
 Humanism
an umbrella term to describe any thought stressing the centrality of Man
 
Hume David (1711 – 1776) Scottish philosopher, his major work at age 26 was
 
A Treatise of Human Nature
 
Husserl Edmund (1859 – 1938) founder of the movement, Phenomenology
Part III [I to P]

 Idealism philosophical use differs from common usage; physical objects can have no  existence apart from a mind
 Ideology
a controversial marxist term
 
Induction a technical term used in logic
 James
William (1842 – 1910) American psychologist and philosopher
 
Jaspers Karl (1883 – 1969) a senior exponent of German existentialism
 Jevons
William Stanley (1835 – 1882) his Principles of Science is a comrehensive work on the logic of induction
 
John of Paris aka Jean Quidort an able political philosopher
 Jurisprudence
related groups of studies about law not gained from knowledge of a  legal system
 
Kant Immanuel (1724 – 1804) his main work is Critical Philosophy.
 
Kierkeggard Sφren Aabye (1813 -1855) greatly influence both Heidigger and Sartre.
 Lacan
Jacques (1901 – 1981) a controversial and influential psychoanalyst
 
Leibnitz Gottfried Wilhelm (1646 – 1716) an influential German philosopher
 Lenin
Ulyanov V. I (1870 – 1924) Bolshevik leader and sometime philosopher
 
Lewis Clarence I. ((1883 – 1964) made fundamental contributions to mathematical logic and the theory of knowledge
 Libertarianism
which attempts to vindicate freedom of the will
 
Locke John (1632 – 1704) his Essay is his most important work
 
Logic is the theory of proof
 Logical Positivism
a philosophical movement emanating from the Vienna Circle.
Lukαcs Georg (1885 – 1971) a Hungarian marxist
 Mach
Ernst (1838 -1916) mportance is as a philosopher and methodologist of science
 
MacIntyre Alasdair a twentieth century Scot Irish philosopher who wrote Marxism  and Christianity.
 McTaggart
John Ellis (1866 -1925) an idealist and systematic metaphysician.

 Machiavelli Niccolς (1469 -1527) a gifted political philosopher; main work The Prince
 Maimonides
(1135 – 1204) wrote The Guide of the Perplexed.
 
Marcel Gabriel (1889 – 1973) his Gifford lecture in 1950 was titled The Mystery of Being.
 
Marcus Aurelius Antonius (121 – 180) Roman Emperor and philosopher
 Marcuse
Herbert (1898 – 1979) developed his own version of critical marxism
 
Maritain Jacques (1882 – 1973) best known work, the Degrees of Knowledge (1932)
 
Marx Karl Heinrich (1818 – 1883) most famous works, Capital and the Communist  Manifesto.
 
Materialism, best known form is speculative atomism
 Mathematics
appears to be a refutation of the empiricist thesis that that all  knowledge is based on sense-experience.
 
Meinong Alexius (1853 – 1920) main interest in his doctrine is in Object Theory.Merlaeu-Ponty Maurice (1907 – 1961) a French phenomenologist
 Metaphilosophy theory about the nature of philosophy
 Metaphor the application to one thing of a name belonging to another thing.
 
Metaphysics is described by some as that part of philosophy which has the greatest  pretensions and is exposed to the greatest suspicions.
 Mill
James (1773 – 1836) a Scottish philosopher whose works include Analysis of the  Phenomena of the Human Mind (1829)
 
Mill John Stuart (1806 – 1873) considered a main link between liberal thought in England and the outside world.
 Mises
Richard von (1883 – 1953) a theorist on Probability and Political mind-sets
 
Monism any system where there is only one substance.
 Moore
George Edward (1873 – 1958) highly influential philosopher
 
Neoplatonism designates the last creative effort of pagan antiquity.
 Nietzsche
Friederich (1844 – 1900) profoundly influenced european philosophy
 Pantheism doctrine that God and Nature are one.
 Pascal
Blaise (1623 – 1662) French mathematician, scientist and theologian
 
Peirce Charles Sanders (1839 – 1914) noted for his papers published postumously,  the Collected Papers of C. S. Peirce in 8 volumes
 
Peter of Spain lived in the thirteenth century and was elected to the Papacy in 1276 as John XXI
 Phenomenonalism
that human knowledge is confined to appearances.
 Phenomenonology signifies a descriptive philosophy of experience
 Philosophy of Mind
is a problem area related to the English word Mind being near impossible easily to translate accurately into other languages.
 
Philosophy of Science covers all aspects of the subject
 Plato
(c. 427 – c. 347 BC) leaving politics he moved to philosophy under the influence  of Socrates
 
Plotinus (205 -  270 AD) originator of neoplatonism
 Political Economy
a school of social theory
 Political Philosophy a good discussion of all aspects.
 Popper
Sir Karl R. 20th century philosopher in the field of science
 
Positivism founded in 19th century by Auguste Comte
 
Pragmatism litle used word in English until used by C.S.Pierce in America
 Pre-Socratics
the earliest Greek thinkers discussed in detail
 
Price Richard (1723 – 1791) English theologian and philosopher
 Psychoanalysis
invented in 1890s by Sigmund Freud
 
Pythagoras of Samos Greek philosopher who lived c. 530 BC

Part IV [Q to Z]

 Quine Willard V. O. 20th century American logician and philosopher
 Rationalism characteristic of philosophy where we obtain substantial knowledge  without any empirical premise
 Rawls
John 20th century American philosopher who argues that political value is individual rights
 
Realism view that some things exist independently of any mind
 Reid
Thomas (1710 -1796) originator of Scottish philosophy of common sense
 
Relativism view that man is the measure of all things
 Relativity
group of theories developed by Albert Einstein
 
Religion are our lives significant? If so how?
 Ricoeur
Paul 20th century French phenomenologist
 
Rorty Richard 20th century American philosopher  of metaphilosophy
 
Rousseau Jean-Jacques (1712 -1778) an influential 18th century writer
 
Royce Josiah (1855 – 1916)  American spokesman for Idealism
 Russell
Bertrand Arthur William, third Earl Russell (1872 – 1970) a British empiricist
 
Ryle Gilbert (1900 – 1976) influential British philosopher and teacher
 Sartre
Jean-Paul (1905 – 1980) highly original thinker and existenialist
 
Saussure Ferdinand de (1857 – 1913) Swiss philologist who founded structural linguistics
 Scepticism
holds that the possibilities of knowledge is limited
 
Sceptics a discussion of them and their structure
 Schelling
Friedrich W.J. (1775 – 1854) influential in German idealism
 
Schiller Ferdinand Canning Scott (1864 – 1937) influential English philosopher in the  field of pragmatic philosophy
 Schlick
Freidrich Albert Moritz (1882 – 1936) member of the Vienna Circle.
 
Schopenhauer Arthur (1788 – 1860) a German metaphysician
 Scotus
John Duns (c. 1266 – 1308) a Scottish Franciscan philosopher
 
Seneca Lucius Annζus (c. 5 BC – 65 AD) a Roman Stoic
 Sense-data
(plural: Sense-datum) term for immediate object of sense-perception.
 
Sidgwick Henry (1828 – 1900) English philosopher
 Smith
Adam (1723 – 1790) Scottish one of the greatest philosophers of his time
 
Social Contract compacts made between rulers and ruled
 Socrates
(469 – 399 BC) Greek philosopher who is known mostly by other’s writings
 
Solipsism theory that what we perceive is a dream
 Sophists
fifth century Greeks offering higher education
 
Spencer Herbert (1820 – 1903) devised system of synthetic philosophy
 Spinoza
Benedict de (1632 – 1677) a towering presence in his time
 
Stevenson Charles Leslie 20th century American best known for his Ethics and  Language (1944)
 
Stoicism the dominant philosophy of the Hellenistic-Roman period
 Strawson
Peter Frederick 20th century English philosopher and logician
 
Subjectivism that the truth of statements depends on the mental state of the person  making the statements
 Thales
of Miletus; he accurately predicted an eclipse c. 585-4 BC
 
Theism belief that there is an omnipotent God
 Theophrastus
(c. 370 BC – c.286 BC) respected student of Aristotle
 
Toulmin Stephen Edelston 20th century English philosopher
 
Transcendental Arguments move from a certain kind of knowledge is possible to that a priori conditions of its possibility must be fulfilled
 
Truth a discussion of the several philosophical views
 Universals
the abstracts e.g. qualities, relations, numbers et cetera
 
Utilitarianism a theory of ethics
 Venn
John (1834 – 1923) an English logician
 
Vienna Circle group of logical empiricists who belonged to the University of Vienna in the 1920s -1930s
 Vitoria
Francis de born between 1483 and 1486 a taught scholastic philosophy
 
Ward James (1843 – 1925) English philosopher wrote on philosophy and psychology
 Weil
Simone (1909 – 1943) French philosopher known for her Christian and mystical doctrines
 
Whewell William (1794 – 1866) pioneered study of the scientific method
 Whitehead
Alfred North (1861 – 1947) English philosopher and mathematician
 
William of Ockham 14th century English scholastic philosopher
 
Wilson John Cook (1849 – 1915) professor of logic at Oxford
 Wittgenstein
Ludwig Josef Johann (1889 -1951) an engineer who became a  philosopher of mathematics
 
Xenophanes (c. 570 BC – c. 475 BC) Greek poet and thinker
 Zeno
of Citium, Cyprus (c. 333 BC – c.262 BC) founder of Stoicism

The course fee is £325 [325GBP] which may be paid in full on enrolment or spread over 8 months at £45 per month.

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